Obesity or overweight severely affect fertility, but it also increases the chances that the child has weight problems in the future.
The overweight and the obesity affect to all them areas of the health, including the fertility, both in the male as in the woman. The body mass index (BMI), which correlates weight and height (kg/m2) is used to define overweight and obesity. He is considered normal weight, when BMI is between 20 and 25, overweight 25-30 and obesity when it is greater than 30.
How it being overweight affect male fertility?
There is controversy over how overweight and obesity affect male fertility. While there are works that defend that the capacity reproductive of the man not is sees affected in these situations, there are multiple studies that documented that overweight and the obesity in the male affect to the quality of the semen. The main parameter that is altered is the mobility of the sperm, being lower in obese men. But the overweight also increases the index of fragmentation of the DNA sperm, i.e., affects directly to the DNA of the sperm what is translates in a minor possibility of get pregnancy and an increase of the risk of abortion.
What is the relationship between obesity and female fertility?
In the case of the woman, the overweight produces a series of disorders endocrine-metabolic that can translate is in alterations in the cycle menstrual that lead to the absence of ovulation. In obese women, the different follicular environment, with a greater presence of triglycerides, glucose, and insulin, translates into a lower quality of the oocytes.
A time got the pregnancy, in the patients with obesity and overweight, is has observed a greater probability of abortion and an increase of them complications both maternal as fetal (diabetes gestational, hypertension in the pregnancy, fetuses large for age gestational). But not only that, obesity in the mother also increases the chances that the child born will be problems of overweight in the future, as well as an increased risk of disease cardiovascular and diseases metabolic as the diabetes.
Does it affect obesity of women in fertility treatments?
Fertility treatments in response to ovarian stimulation is altered in obese women, being worse than in those with normal weight.
Until now, nearly all works on this topic were retrospective studies that analysed the fertility, response to treatment and evolution of pregnancy in obese patients. The ovocytes from patients with overweight or obese had a smaller and less likely to complete the development after fertilization. Those embryos evolutionary from of these patients, had a development more quickly, reaching the stadium of morula before and giving place to blastocysts with a lower content of cells in the analysis (cells that will give place subsequently to the placenta). In addition, these blastocysts had a lower consumption of glucose and a different amino acid metabolism, as well as major endogenous triglyceride levels. These data were independent of the BMI of the male.
All these data, reinforce still more it Association that exists between the nutrition maternal, the environment periconceptional, it quality oocyte and the development of the embryo and its metabolism, besides its impact in the health of the child after the childbirth. In view of the results, professionals who work at a fertility clinic should give even greater importance to the treatment of overweight and obesity before a technique of assisted reproduction, not only with the objective of increasing the rate of pregnancy, but to protect the health of the future child.